[1]郭静云 郭立新.“蓝色革命”:新石器生活方式的发生机制及指标问题(上)[J].中国农史,2019,38(04):3-18.
 Olga Gorodetskaya GUO Li-xin.Blue Revolution: The Genesis of the Neolithic Way of Life(An East Asian Perspective)[J].SAMSON,2019,38(04):3-18.
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“蓝色革命”:新石器生活方式的发生机制及指标问题(上)()
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《中国农史》[ISSN:1000-4459/CN:32-1061/S]

卷:
38
期数:
2019年04期
页码:
3-18
栏目:
出版日期:
2019-09-05

文章信息/Info

Title:
Blue Revolution: The Genesis of the Neolithic Way of Life(An East Asian Perspective)
作者:
郭静云12 郭立新2
(1.中正大学 历史系,台湾 嘉义 62102;2.中山大学 社会学与人类学学院,广东 广州 510275)
Author(s):
Olga Gorodetskaya12 GUO Li-xin2
(1. History Department, Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 62102;2. School of Sociology and Anthropology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275)
关键词:
“蓝色革命”新石器革命食谱广化农业起源谷类驯化
Keywords:
Blue RevolutionNeolithic Revolutionbroad-spectrumorigin of agriculturecereals domestication
分类号:
S-09;K207
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
文章依据东亚的资料重新反思和检讨旧、新石器之间所发生的生计变化和内在逻辑。新石器革命经常又被称为“农业革命”,但笔者分析认为,农业是人类改变生态龛的副产品之一,不宜以农业为指标探讨新石器革命的含意。新石器革命的第一步,肇始于末次冰期之后的气候暖化时期,当时水界进入人类生态龛中,并带来巨大变化。因此本文提出将新石器革命称为“蓝色革命”。在气候变化的背景上,有些人群的食谱开始多包涵鱼等水生动物以及水边的鸟类,因此石质猎器和部分工具细小化。同时,因应捕捞发展的需求,在竹、木足够的地区,开始制作竹筏和木船,此乃促使磨制加工石器的新技术。了解磨制石器出现的需求,我们才容易理解,何以渔业不发达或缺木材的区域文化并不发展磨制工具技术。以渔业维生的族群逐步开始在水流平缓宽敞、水生动植物资源丰富的地方半定居或全定居,并进一步尝试在自己生活范围中的其它可用的食物,其中也注意到谷类,开始采集及食用。在浅水里和水边采集及食用小螺和谷物的需求,促使人们发明陶器。本文强调,陶器的发明离不开水边的生计以及人类采集细小谷类的需求。此外,东亚考古资料阐明,人们用稻谷酿低度数的甜酒应早于煮饭,到了生产量增加时才用作主食。从狩猎为主要生计到渔业为主要生计因而定居,后因定居而到食用谷类,再进一步开始生产食物,此乃人类经历从“蓝色革命”而肇始的重大转折过程。
Abstract:
This paper aims to rethink and reflect on the change in the way of life and its inner logic that happened during the transition from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age, taking materials from Eastern Asia as its base. As is known, the Neolithic Revolution is widely called Agricultural Revolution. However, the author proposes that we should not use agriculture as an indicator of the Neolithic Revolution, for it is just one of the by-products of humans changing their ecological niche. In actuality, the onset of the Neolithic Revolution is the warming of the climate after the last Glacial, with the consequent increase of the importance of water in humans’ lives, triggering the change. Coping with the changes in climate, some groups begin to consume aquatic animals such as fish and waterside fowl. Consequently, there appears a tendency to miniaturize stone hunting tools and other utensils. Meanwhile, in order to meet the demands of fishing development, people in forested regions try to make wooden boats, bringing out the new technique of polished stone vessels. This paper is going to make it clear that there is a close relationship between the emergence and progress of the microlith and the miniaturization of hunting targets (fish and fowl). Furthermore, the use of timber creates the need of polished stone vessels, which first appear in places where humans begin to make dugouts. It thus becomes clear, why the technique of polished stone vessels is not advanced in these cultures lacking in fishery and timber industries.Human groups relying on fishing for subsistence gradually adopt a semi-sedentary or sedentary lifestyle in such places where streams are mild and wide, leading to rich and varied aquatic animals and plants. As time goes on, they include other types of food into their diet, among which are also cereal crops. Finally, demands of gathering and processing cereals lead humans to invent first pottery techniques. This paper is going to emphasize that the invention of pottery goes hand in hand with the waterside lifestyle and cereal crops gathering. In addition, archaeological data from East Asia suggests that people started using rice for making low-alcohol wine earlier than for cooking, and its role as a staple food is a later phenomenon due to increase in production volume.What we call the Blue Revolution is precisely such transition from a hunting lifestyle to a fishing lifestyle, which allowed human groups to settle down and discover cereals.
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-09-12