[1]刘 亮.“农、林、水、土”之争:民国时期的防灾与土壤保持[J].中国农史,2019,38(04):85-95.
 LIU Liang.The Controversy among Chinese Agriculturists,Foresters,Hydraulic Scientists and Agronomists: Prevention of Floods and Droughts & Soil Conservation in the Republic of China Era[J].SAMSON,2019,38(04):85-95.
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“农、林、水、土”之争:民国时期的防灾与土壤保持()
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《中国农史》[ISSN:1000-4459/CN:32-1061/S]

卷:
38
期数:
2019年04期
页码:
85-95
栏目:
出版日期:
2019-09-05

文章信息/Info

Title:
The Controversy among Chinese Agriculturists,Foresters,Hydraulic Scientists and Agronomists: Prevention of Floods and Droughts & Soil Conservation in the Republic of China Era
作者:
刘 亮
(中国科学院 自然科学史研究所,北京 100190)
Author(s):
LIU Liang
(The Institute for the History of Natural Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190)
关键词:
农、林、水、土民国时期防灾土壤保持
Keywords:
agriculturistsforestershydraulic scientists and agronomistsprevention of floods and droughtssoil conservationRepublic of China era
分类号:
S-09;K214
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
近代中国的土壤保持工作是在美国帮助中国赈济1910年和1920年两次大饥荒及实施防止饥荒计划的过程中开启的。同时,随着主要留学美国的农、林、水利、土壤等学科的本土科学家的归国及研究的深入,他们逐渐在单纯的防灾工作中意识到开展土壤保持工作的重要性。抗战全面爆发后,随着国民政府开发西北政策的实施,土壤保持学在中国作为一门独立科学产生的条件已经具备。但在此过程中,由于该学科交叉性的特点,在中国特殊的文化和社会环境下,不同学科的研究者们在防灾思想、土壤保持术语、涵盖范围及举措等方面产生较大分歧并引起激烈争论,乃至为争夺水土保持实验区开发权而对立,从而给土壤保持学的发展打上了带有浓郁中国色彩的烙印。
Abstract:
The soil conservation work in modern China was initiated in the process of America aiding China in the two major famines relief in 1910 and 1920,implementing a plan to prevent famine. At the same time,with the return of Chinese scientists who studied in USA majoring in agriculture,forestry,hydraulics,soil and other disciplines,they gradually realized the importance of carrying out soil conservation work in simple disaster prevention work. After the outbreak of the anti-Japan war,with the Developing Northwest China Policy by the National Government,soil conservation science has been established as an independent science in China. However,in this process,due to the cross-cutting characteristics of the discipline,under the special cultural and social environment of China,researchers from different disciplines made great differences in disaster prevention thoughts,soil conservation terminology,coverage and measures,and this caused fierce debates. They even competed for the right to develop the soil and water conservation experimental area,thus the development of soil conservation science has been branded with a strong Chinese color.

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更新日期/Last Update: 2019-09-12